Bauxite, Alumina & Aluminium GHG Intensity Curves Launched

We are pleased to announce the launch of GHG Emission Curves covering bauxite mining, alumina refining and primary aluminium smelting.

This newly released analysis covers 100% of global bauxite, alumina and primary aluminium production for 2018, 2019 and 2020 at a granular (asset) level. Skarn’s proprietary E1 emission metric encompasses Scope 1 and 2 CO2e emissions*, plus freight, to primary metal. Our analysis is carried out according to carefully defined supply chain system boundaries, to facilitate like-for-like comparison of assets.

The world’s primary aluminium smelting industry accounted for 701Mt CO2e of Scope 1 and 2 CO2 equivalent emissions, plus an additional 178Mt CO2e associated with alumina refining, bauxite mining and freight to importing country port in 2020. E1 GHG emissions for the aluminium mining-refining-smelting chain equate to 2.4% of global non-land-use carbon emissions.

Skarn’s extractive sector asset-level GHG emissions analysis for aluminium, copper, gold, iron ore, metallurgical coal and nickel now accounts for 1,388Mt of CO2e in total, or 3.8% of global non-land-use carbon emissions. The aluminium sector comprises 63% of the extractive sector emissions accounted for by Skarn.


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Skarn Associates is the market leader in quantifying and benchmarking asset-level greenhouse gas emissions, energy intensity, and water use across the mining sector.

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