• Data is presented from the mine or smelter and refinery perspective, covering the emissions up to production of LME-grade refined metal for more than 90% of global production
  • Physical production parameters are presented, including ore mined, SxEw leached and milled, ore grades, strip ratios and by-product metal production

Skarn's copper mine, smelter and refinery analysis includes detailed breakdown of GHG emissions and energy inputs, by asset, with forecasts to 2025 for copper mines

Emission data is presented as; total tonnes of CO2e and emissions intensity, stated as tonnes of CO2e per tonne of copper equivalent metal production.

For copper E0 and E1 emissions are defined as follows: 

E0: Scope 1 and 2 emissions relating to the mine site or smelter/refinery. 

E1: For mines, E0 plus emissions from transport, smelting and refining.

Skarn Associates is the market leader in quantifying and benchmarking asset-level ESG metrics.