• Complete view of emissions associated with the production of primary bauxite, alumina and aluminium, covering close to 100% of global primary production
  • Data presented from a refinery viewpoint (alumina) and a smelter viewpoint (aluminium)
  • Like for like comparison of assets through carefully defined supply chain system boundaries
  • Allocation of emissions according to equity ownership of smelter or refinery and the upstream emissions from mining and refining related to that asset
  • Includes emissions for minority shareholdings which are often excluded from company sustainability reports

Emission data is presented as total tonnes of CO2e and emissions intensity, expressed as tonnes of CO2e per tonne of alumina or aluminium

We incorporate upstream emissions from mining and refining in our E1 metric.

Our Alumina/Bauxite and Aluminium research defines E0 and E1 emissions as follows:

E0: Scope 1 and 2 emissions relating to a mine, refinery or smelter site.

E1: E0 plus Scope 3 emissions from transport; mine to refinery and from refinery to smelter.

Skarn Associates is the market leader in quantifying and benchmarking asset-level ESG metrics.