• Complete view of GHG emissions associated with the production of zinc, from the perspective of both mines and smelters
  • Like-for-like comparison of assets through carefully defined supply chain system boundaries
  • Allocation of emissions according to equity ownership of asset, including emissions for minority shareholdings which are often excluded from company sustainability reports 

Emission data is presented as total tonnes of CO2e and tonnes of CO2e per tonne of zinc.

For zinc, E0 and E1 emissions are defined as: 

E0: Scope 1 and 2 emissions at mine or smelter site.

E1: For zinc mines, E0 plus emissions from concentrate freight and smelting to produce refined zinc.

Skarn Associates is the market leader in quantifying and benchmarking asset-level ESG metrics.