• Complete view of emissions associated with the production of Lithium from hard rock and brine. Data is presented from the mine perspective, in the production of lithium carbonate equivalent
  • Allows the like-for-like comparison of hard rock and brine producers, through carefully defined supply chain system boundaries
  • Corporate data includes emissions for minority shareholdings which are often excluded in company sustainability reports

Emission data is presented as total tonnes of CO2e and tonnes of CO2e per tonne of final saleable chemical product (lithium carbonate/lithium hydroxide).

Spodumene concentrates cannot be used directly in the lithium chemical market without energy intensive onward processing. Skarn's method allows brine and hard rock operators to be compared on the same basis.

For Lithium, E0 and E1 emissions are defined as follows: 

E0: Scope 1 and 2 emissions at mine or brine refinery.

E1: E0 plus emissions from intermediate product transport, downstream distribution and mineral conversion, up to first use entry point lithium chemical.

Skarn Associates is the market leader in quantifying and benchmarking asset-level ESG metrics.