Skarn's GHG emission and Intensity Curves quantify emissions at asset, company and country level.
The analysis covers Scope 1 and 2 CO2 equivalent (CO2e) emissions*, which we refer to as E0
Our proprietary E1 emissions metric - designed as a best-fit for mining supply chains covers Scope 1, 2 and 3 GHG emissions, usually up to refined metal or first saleable product. Our analysis is underpinned by detailed reconciliation between energy inputs and carbon emissions, normalised to consistent units of production.
For each commodity, appropriate system boundaries - i.e. clearly defined points within the supply chain - have been applied, facilitating like-for-like comparison of assets.
In our company-level analysis, we take a stringent approach to allocation of emissions according to equity ownership of assets. This may differ from reported emissions for a company given that Skarn includes emissions for minority shareholdings which are often excluded in company sustainability reports.