• Complete view of emissions associated with the production of lead, from the perspective of both mines and smelters
  • Covering emissions and energy usage of global primary lead smelting and refining operations alongside ore mined and ore grades, plus mining method and deposit type
  • Like for like comparison of assets through carefully defined supply chain system boundaries
  • When combined with Skarn's industry leading zinc mines and zinc smelter products, Skarn clients can now access emissions data on the lead/zinc supply chain in unrivalled detail

Emission data is presented as total tonnes of CO2e and tonnes of CO2e per tonne of lead equivalent production. 

For lead, E0 and E1 emissions are defined as: 

E0: Scope 1 and 2 emissions from mining activities and ore processing at the mine or smelter site.

E1: For lead mines, E0 plus emissions from concentrate freight and smelting to produce refined lead.

Skarn Associates is the market leader in quantifying and benchmarking asset-level ESG metrics.