• Complete view of emissions associated with the production of lead, from the perspective of both mines and smelters
  • Covering emissions and energy usage of global primary lead smelting and refining operations alongside ore mined and ore grades, plus mining method and deposit type
  • Like for like comparison of assets through carefully defined supply chain system boundaries
  • When combined with Skarn's industry leading zinc mines and zinc smelter products, Skarn clients can now access emissions data on the lead/zinc supply chain in unrivalled detail


Emission data is presented as total tonnes of CO2e and tonnes of CO2e per tonne of lead equivalent production. 

For lead, E0 and E1 emissions are defined as: 

E0: Scope 1 and 2 emissions from mining activities and ore processing at the mine or smelter site.

E1: For lead mines, E0 plus emissions from concentrate freight and smelting to produce refined lead.


Scope 1 (Direct) Greenhouse Gas Emissions are derived from sources that are owned or controlled by the reporting organisation - often to the 'minegate' boundary or smelter/refinery gate for integrated operations. They typically include emissions from consumption of diesel in haulage trucks or onsite power generators along with emissions from other sources such as natural gas, aviation fuel, fugitive emissions, use of explosives, etc. Intensity numbers are calculated as total tonnes of CO2e divided by lead metal equivalent production.

Scope 2 (Indirect) Greenhouse Gas Emissions are generated at sources owned or controlled by another organisation. This is generally electricity purchased by the mine (or smelter for integrated assets) from the grid. The Grid Carbon Factors sheet in this model provides a high level summary of the grid emission data.

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