• Data is presented from the mine perspective, including supply chain emissions up to  production of refined gold
  • Physical production parameters are presented, including ore mined, heap leached and/or milled, ore grades, strip ratios and by-product metal production
  • For base metal concentrates containing gold, emissions are fully allocated to the primary metal in concentrate with gold being free-carried, up to the anode slime stage. Emissions from refining of anode slimes are allocated to gold
  • Allocation of emissions by company is added according to equity ownership of mine assets, including emissions for minority shareholdings, which are often excluded from company sustainability reports)
  • The dataset includes total cash costs and all-in sustaining costs,  based on the World Gold Council Guidelines

Emission data is presented as both total tonnes of CO2e and tonnes of CO2e per equivalent ounce of refined gold.

For gold, E0 and E1 emissions are defined as follows: 

E0: Scope 1 and 2 emissions at mine site.

E1: E0 plus emissions from dore and concentrate freight, smelting and refining.

Skarn Associates is the market leader in quantifying and benchmarking asset-level ESG metrics.